|Tools For Thought||by Howard Rheingold|
April, 2000: a revised edition of Tools for Thought is available from MIT Press including a revised chapter with 1999 interviews of Doug Engelbart, Bob Taylor, Alan Kay, Brenda Laurel, and Avron Barr. ISBN: 9780262681155, 1985 ed, ISBN: 0262681153
Tools for Thought is an exercise in retrospective futurism; that is, I wrote it in the early 1980s, attempting to look at what the mid 1990s would be like. My odyssey started when I discovered Xerox PARC and Doug Engelbart and realized that all the journalists who had descended upon Silicon Valley were missing the real story. Yes, the tales of teenagers inventing new industries in their garages were good stories. But the idea of the personal computer did not spring full-blown from the mind of Steve Jobs. Indeed, the idea that people could use computers to amplify thought and communication, as tools for intellectual work and social activity, was not an invention of the mainstream computer industry nor orthodox computer science, nor even homebrew computerists. If it wasn't for people like J.C.R. Licklider, Doug Engelbart, Bob Taylor, Alan Kay, it wouldn't have happened. But their work was rooted in older, equally eccentric, equally visionary, work, so I went back to piece together how Boole and Babbage and Turing and von Neumann — especially von Neumann — created the foundations that the later toolbuilders stood upon to create the future we live in today. You can't understand where mind-amplifying technology is going unless you understand where it came from.
This book would not have been conceived and could not have been written without the generous and patient assistance of many people. My heartfelt thanks to Rita Aero, Avron Barr, John Brockman, Donald Day, Robert Eckhardt, Doug Engelbart, Brenda Lauel, Howard Levine, Judith Maas, Geraldine Rheingold, Alan Rinzler, Charles Silver, Marshall Smith, Bob Taylor, David Rodman, and Gloria Warner. And thanks to Alan Turner, who originally prepared my words for web publication.Dedicated To Nathan Rheingold,
who gave me the most important thing a man can ever give his son: an example.
Or the Internet isn't a Permanent Place
2017 Update - only a few external links still work
http://www.the-resource.com/resource/barr.htm https://crl.ucsd.edu/~goldberg/ http://www.cs.stanford.edu/profile/ai.html http://el.www.media.mit.edu/groups/logo-foundation/ http://www.multimedia.hosting.ibm.com/mmtoday/magazine/papert-1.html https://www.mag.keio.ac.jp/~derick/drucker.html http://www.hp.com/abouthp/history.html http://www-ctl.stanford.edu/lectures/awtts95/zimbardo.html https://www.stanford.edu/adventure/ http://www.winternet.com/~radams/adventure/history.html https://people.well.com/user/crunch/ http://www.apl.jhu.edu/~hall/lisp.html http://physics.hallym.ac.kr/reference/physicist/Schrodinger.html https://www.upenn.edu/AR/penninfo-new/ENIAC_Papers.html https://delmarvaonline.com/local/shore_journal/joc10225.html http://www.zib-berlin.de/Prospect/zuse.html http://www.cranfield.ac.uk/CCC/BPark/ http://www.wadham.ox.ac.uk/~ahodges/T-machine.html https://www.ucc.ie/en/ [index page] http://ogham.ucc.ie/gb.html http://www.shu.edu/projects/reals/history/demorgan.html https://onesearch.library.utoronto.ca/404 http://www.cs.yale.edu/HTML/YALE/CS/HyPlans/tap/ada-lovelace.html http://www.students.uiuc.edu/~lneumann/wargames/ https://help.aol.com/articles/aim-discontinued http://www.njit.edu/CCCC/eies/eiesinfo.html http://library.microsoft.com/msinfo/mshist.htm http://alethea.ukc.ac.uk/SU/Societies/StarTrek/Episodes/TOS/3 http://hyperweb.com/altair/ http://physics.hallym.ac.kr/reference/physicist/Ch.html#Clausius http://canyon.ucsd.edu/infoville/schoolhouse/class_html/duy.html http://www.kzoo.edu/~abrady/CS400/bioW96/soulier.html http://brainop.media.mit.edu/people/minsky.html http://loki.sonoma.edu/Math/faculty/falbo/hilbert.html http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Russell.html http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Russell.html http://www.needham.mec.edu/NPS_Web_docs/High_School/cur/mp/index.html http://www.wadham.ox.ac.uk/~ahodges/Turing.html
Working Links: or links not yet entirely dead
http://www.thebeanbagchairoutlet.com https://www.sri.com http://www-ai.ijs.si/eliza/eliza.html not allowed to run script http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/CYBSYSTH.html http://www.links.net/vita/swat/course/reality/quantum.html http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/rbm/mauchly/jwmintro.html https://www.ias.edu http://www.cbi.umn.edu http://www.iftf.org/home/ https://web.njit.edu/~turoff/Papers/delphi3.html https://web.njit.edu/~turoff/ https://www.media.mit.edu/people/nicholas/overview/ https://www.bell-labs.com Now Nokia
howard rheingold's brainstorms
1985 howard rheingold, all rights reserved worldwide.