Howard Rheingold The Virtual Community
Howard's Mind


Compiled by researcher Moya K. Mason
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Articles | Monographs | Theses


Agres, C., D. Edberg, and M. Igbaria. "Transformation to Virtual Societies: Forces and Issues." The Information Society 14, no. 2 (1998): 71-82.

Anderson, T., and H. Kanuka. "On-Line Forums: New Platforms for Professional Development and Group Collaboration." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3, no. 3 (1997).

Aoki, Kumiko. "Virtual Communities in Japan." Paper presented at the Pacific Telecommunications Council Conference, 1994.
Available at

Araki, I. "An Approach to the Information Space and On-the-Line Interaction." International Sociological Association, 1998.

Arrow, Holly, et al. "Time, Technology and Groups: An Integration." Computer Supported Cooperative Work 4, no. 2/3 (1995-1996): 253-261.

Aycock, Alan. "Technologies of the Self: Foucault and Internet Discourse." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 1, no. 2 (1995).

Bajan, P. "New Communities, New Social Norms?" Studia Psychologica 40, no. 4 (1998): 361-366.

Baker, Andrea. "Two By Two in Cyberspace: Getting Together and Connecting Online?" Cyberpsychology and Behavior 3, no.2 (2000) 237-242.

Barak, A. "Psychological Applications on the Internet: A Discipline on the Threshold of a New Millennium." Applied and Preventive Psychology 8, no. 4 (1999): 231-245.

Barbatsis, G., and K. Hansen. "The Performance of Cyberspace: An Exploration into Computer-Mediated Reality." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 5, no. 1 (1999).

Barnes, S., and L. M. Greller. "Computer-Mediated Communication in the Organization." Communication Education 43, no. 2 (1994): 129-142.

Baym, N. "From Practice to Culture on Usenet." Sociological Review Monograph (1995): 29-52.

Baym, N. "The Performance of Humor in Computer-Mediated Communication." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 1, no. 2 (1995).

Baym, N. "Agreements and Disagreements in a Computer-Mediated Discussion." Research on Language and Social Interaction 29, no. 4 (1996): 315-345.

Beniger, James. "The Personalization of Mass Media and the Growth of Pseudo-Community." Communication Research 14, no. 3 (1987): 369.

Beniger, James. "Toward an Old New Paradigm: The Half-Century Flirtation with Mass Society." Public Opinion Quarterly 51, no. 4 (1987): 46-66.

Beniger, James. "Information Society and Global Science." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 495 (1988): 14-28.

Berdahl, J.L., and K.M. Craig. "Equality of Participation and Influence in Groups: The Effects of Communication Medium and Sex Composition." Computer Supported Cooperative Work 4, no. 2/3 (1995-1996): 179-201.

Berthold, Michael, et al. "Clustering on the Net: Applying an Autoassociative Neural Network to Computer-Mediated Discussions." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 2, no. 4 (1997).

Blanchard, A., and T. Horan. "Virtual Communities and Social Capital." Social Science Computer Review 16, no. 3 (1998): 293-307.

Bordia, P. "Face-to-Face Versus Computer-Mediated Communication: A Synthesis of the Experimental Literature." The Journal of Business Communication 34, no. 1 (1997): 99-120.

Bordia, P., N. DiFonzo, and A. Chang. "Rumor as Group Problem Solving: Development Patterns in Informal Computer-Mediated Groups." Small Group Research 30, no. 1 (1999): 8-28.

Breen, Marcus. "Information Does Not Equal Knowledge: Theorizing the Political Economy of Virtuality." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3, no. 3 (1997).

Brignall, Wells. "The Internet as a Tool for a Community: Virtual Citizens and the New Technocracy." Society for the Study of Social Problems, 1999.

Bruckman, Amy. "Identity Workshop: Emergent Social And Psychological Phenomena In Text-Based Virtual Reality," 1993.
Available at:

Bruckman, Amy. "Gender-Swapping on the Internet." Presented at The Internet Society (INET '93) in San Fransisco, California, August, 1993.

Bruckman, Amy. "Approaches To Managing Deviant Behavior in Virtual Communities." Panel Discussion presented at CHI ‘94 in Boston, MA, April 1994.

Bruckman, Amy. "Finding One's Own Space in Cyberspace." Technology Review 99, no. 1 (1996): 48-54.

Calhoun, Craig. "Community Without Propinquity Revisited: Communications Technology and the Transformation of the Urban Public Sphere." Sociological Inquiry 68, no. 3 (1998): 373-397.

Capussotti, Enrica. "Italian Cyberpunk: A Networked Community." Quaderni di Sociologia 41, no. 13 (1997): 59-77.

Cerulo, Karen A. "Reframing Social Concepts for a Brave New (Virtual) World." Sociological Inquiry 67, no. 1 (1997): 48-58.

Cherny, L. "Gender Differences in Text-Based Virtual Reality." Proceedings of the Third Berkeley Women and Language Conference, 1994.

Cherny, L. "The Modal Complexity of Speech Events in a Social MUD." Electronic Journal of Communication 5, no. 4 (1995).

Cherny, L. "Objectifying the Body in the Discourse of an Object-Oriented MUD." In Cyberspaces: Pedagogy and Performance on the Electronic Frontier, edited by C. Stivale in a special issue of Works and Days 25/26, volume 13, no. 1&2 (1995).
Available at

Cherny, L. "The Situated Behavior of MUD Back-Channels." Paper presented at the AAAI Spring Symposium, Stanford, March 1995, in the session on Empirical Methods in Discourse Analysis.

Chung, Pei Chi. "The Social Dimensions of Computer-Mediated Communication: A Comparative Analysis of Two On-Line Discussion Groups." American Sociological Association, 1997.

Coleman, L.H., C.E. Paternite, and R.C. Sherman. "A Reexamination of Deindividuation in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication." Computers in Human Behavior 15, no. 1 (1999): 51-65.

Curtis, P. "Mudding: Social Phenomena in Text-based Virtual Realities." From the Proceedings of the 1992 Conference on Directions and Implications of Advanced Computing, Berkeley, CA.

Curtis, P., and D. Nichols. "MUDs Grow Up: Social Virtual Reality in the Real World." Report presented to Xerox PARC, Palo Alto, 1993.

Cutler, R.H. "Distributed Presence and Community in Cyberspace." Interpersonal Computing and Technology 3, no. 2 (1995).

Czajkowski, Alex, and Sara Kiesler. "Computer-Mediated Communication: Or, the New Next Best Thing to Being There." National Forum 64, no. 3 (1984): 31-34.

D'Ambra, J., R.E. Rice, and M. O'Connor. "Computer-Mediated Communication and Media Preference: An Investigation of the Dimensionality of Perceived Task Equivocality and Media Richness." Behaviour and Information Technology 17, no. 3 (1998): 164-174.

Danet, B., L. Reudenberg-Wright, and Y. Rosenbaum-Tamari. "Hmmm…Where's that Smoke Coming From?: Writing, Play and Performance on Internet Relay Chat." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 2, no. 4 (1997).

Dennis, A.R., S.T. Kinney, and Y.T. Hung. "Gender Differences in the Effects of Media Richness." Small Group Research 30, no. 4 (1999): 405-437.

DeSanctis, G., and P. Monge. "Communication Processes for Virtual Organizations." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3, no. 4 (1998).

Dibbell, J. "A Rape in Cyberspace: How an Evil Clown, a Haitian Trickster Spirit, Two Wizards, and a Cast of Dozens Turned a Database into a Society." The Village Voice, (December 21, 1993): 36-42.

Donath, J., K. Karahalios, and F. Viégas. "Visualizing Conversation." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4, no. 4 (1999).

Douglas, M., and G. Pallotti. "The Home as a Virtual Community." Rassegna Italiana di Sociologia 36, no. 2 (1995): 229-250.

Du Pont, Pete. "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: How the Internet Will Revolutionize Public Policy." Vital Speeches of the Day 65, no. 15 (1999): 477-479.

Dyson, Esther, et al. "Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age." The Information Society 12, no. 3 (1996): 295-308.

Endo, Kaoru. "Projection into Virtuality: Modernity and Virtual Communities." Japanese Sociological Review 48, no. 4 (1998): 50-64.

Escobar, Arturo, et al. "Welcome to Cyberia: Notes on the Anthropology of Cyberculture." Current Anthropology 35, no. 3 (1994): 211-223.

Escobar, Arturo. "Anthropology and the Future: New Technologies and the Reinvention of Culture." Futures 27, no. 4 (1995): 409-421.

Fernback, J., and B. Thompson. "Virtual Communities: Abort, Retry, Failure?" Presented as "Computer-Mediated Communication and the American Collectivity" at the Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association, Albuquerque, New Mexico, May 1995.

Ferris, Sharmila Pixy. "Women On-Line: Cultural and Relational Aspects of Women's Communication in On-Line Discussion Groups." Interpersonal Computing and Technology 4, no. 3/4 (1996): 29-40.

Fischer, C. S. "Technology and Community: Historical Complexities." Sociological Inquiry 67, no. 1 (1997): 113-18.

Fuller, R. "Human-Computer-Human Interaction: How Computers Affect Interpersonal Communication." The Electronic Journal on Virtual Culture 2, no. 2 (1994).

Galegher J., L. Sproull, and S. Kiesler. "Legitimacy, Authority, and Community in Electronic Support Groups." Written Communication 15, no. 4 (1998): 493-530.

Garcia, A.C., and J.B. Jacobs. "The Eyes of the Beholder: Understanding the Turn-Taking System in Quasi-Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication." Research on Language and Social Interaction 32, no. 4 (1999): 337-367.

Garton, L., C. Haythornthwaite, and B. Wellman. "Studying Online Social Networks." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3, no. 1 (1997).

Graetz, K.A., et al. "Information Sharing Face-to-Face Teleconferencing, and Electronic Chat Groups." Small Group Research 29, no. 6 (1998): 714-743.

Granito, A.J., L. Groarke, and J. Kohls. "Open Peer Commentaries on Virtuality, Conversation, and Morality." Technology Studies 3, no. 2 (1996): 215-226.

Granovetter, Mark. "The Strength of Weak Ties." American Journal of Sociology 78, no. 6 (1973): 1360-1380.

Gregson, K. "Conversation and Community or Sequential Monologues: An Analysis of Politically Oriented Newsgroups." Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting 35 (1998): 531-541.

Griffith, T.L., and G.B. Northcraft. "Distinguishing Between the Forest and the Trees: Media, Features, and Methodology in Electronic Communication Research." Organization Science 5, no. 2 (1994): 272-285.

Gruber, S. "Communication Gone Wired: Working Toward a Practiced Cyberfeminism." The Information Society 15, no. 3 (1999): 199-208.

Hacker, K.L., and M.A. Todino. "Virtual Democracy at the Clinton White House: An Experiment in Electronic Democratisation." Javnost /The Public 3, no. 1 (1996): 71-86.

Hafner, Katie. "The Epic Saga of The Well: The World's Most Influential Online Community (and it's not AOL)." Wired 5.05 (1997): 100-144.

Hampton, K.N., and B. Wellman. "Netville Online and Offline: Observing and Surveying a Wired Suburb." American Behavioral Scientist 43, no. 3 (1999): 475-492.

Harmon, Amy. "Researchers Find Sad, Lonely World in Cyberspace." New York Times, August 30, 1998.

Haythornthwaite, C., B. Wellman, and M. Mantei. "Work Relationships and Media Use: A Social Network Analysis." Group Decision and Negotiations 4, no. 3 (1995): 193-211.

Haythornthwaite, C. "Work, Friendship, and Media Use for Information Exchange in a Networked Organization." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49, no. 12 (1998): 1101-1114.

Hearst, M.A., and J. Grudin. "The Changing Relationship Between Information Technology and Society: Has the Ice Man Arrived? Tact on the Internet." IEEE Intelligent Systems and their Applications 14, no. 1 (1999): 8-15.

Herring, Susan. "Gender Differences in Computer-Mediated Communication: Bringing Familiar Baggage to the New Frontier." Keynote paper at American Library Association annual convention (Miami, FL, June 27, 1994).

Herring, Susan. "Linguistic and Critical Analysis of Computer-Mediated Communication: Some Ethical and Scholarly Considerations." The Information Society 12, no. 2 (1996): 153-168.

Herring, Susan. "Interactional Coherence in CMC." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4, no. 4 (1999).

Herring, Susan. "The Rhetorical Dynamics of Gender Harassment Online." The Information Society 15, no. 3 (1999): 151-168.

Hill, K.A., and J.E. Hughes. "Computer-Mediated Political Communication: The USENET and Political Communities." Political Communication 14, no. 1 (1997): 3-27.

Hiltz, S.R., and B. Wellman. "Asynchronous Learning Networks as a Virtual Classroom." Communications of the ACM 40, no. 9 (1997): 44-49.

Hinds, P., and S. Kiesler. "Communication Across Boundaries: Work, Structure, and Use of Communication Technologies in a Large Organization." Organization Science 6, no. 4 (1995): 373-393.

Ito, M. "Theory, Method, and Design in Anthropologies of the Internet." Social Science Computer Review 14, no. 1 (1996): 24-26.

Jacobson, David. "Contexts and Cues in Cyberspace: The Pragmatics of Naming in Text-Based Virtual Realities." Journal of Anthropological Research 52, no. 4 (1996): 461-479.

Jacobson, David. "Impression Formation in Cyberspace: Online Expectations and Offline Experiences in Text-Based Virtual Communities." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 5, no. 1 (1999).

Johnson, Dan. "Do-it-Yourself Governance?" The Futurist 33, no. 5 (1999): 12.

Jones, Quentin. "Virtual-Communities, Virtual Settlements and Cyber-Archaeology: A Theoretical Outline." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3, no. 3 (1997).

Jones, Steve. "Using the News: An Examination of the Value and Use of News Sources in CMC." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 2, no. 4 (1997).

Jordan, T., and P. Taylor. "A Sociology of Hackers." Sociological Review 46, no. 4 (1998): 757-780.

Kahai, S., and R.B. Cooper. "The Effect of Computer-Mediated Communication on Agreement and Acceptance." Journal of Management Information Systems 16, no. 1 (1999): 165-188.

Katz, Jon. "The Tales They Tell in Cyberspace Are a Whole Other Story." New York Times, January 23, 1994, pp. A1, A30.

Kayany, Joseph M. "Contexts of Uninhibited Online Behavior: Flaming in Social Newsgroups on Usenet." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 49, no. 12 (1998): 1135-1141.

Kendall, Lori. "Electronic Identity: Anonymity Control on MUDs." American Sociological Association, 1995.

Kiesler, S., J. Siegel, and T.W. McGuire. "Social Psychological Aspects of Computer-Mediated Communication." American Psychologist 39, no. 10 (1984): 1123-1134.

Kiesler, S., D. Zubrow, and A. Moses. "Affect in Computer-Mediated Communication: An Experiment in Synchronous Terminal-to-Terminal Discussion." Human-Computer Interaction 1 (1985): 77-104.

Kiesler, S. "The Hidden Message in Computer Networks." Harvard Business Review 64, no. 1 (1986): 46-58.

King, Storm A. "Researching Internet Communities: Proposed Ethical Guidelines for the Reporting of Results." The Information Society 12, no. 2 (1996): 119-127.

Kling, Rob. "Synergies and Competition Between Life in Cyberspace and Face-to-Face Communities." Social Science Computer Review 14, no. 1 (1996): 50-54.

Kollock, Peter. "The Economies of Online Cooperation: Gifts and Public Goods in Cyberspace," 1999.
Available at

Komito, Lee. "The Net as a Foraging Society: Flexible Communities." The Information Society 14, no. 2 (1998): 97-106.

Kraut Robert, et al. "Internet Paradox: A Social Technology that Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well-Being?" American Psychologist 53, no. 9 (1998): 1017-1031.

Kraut, Robert, et al. "Social Impact of the Internet: What Does it Mean?" Association for Computing Machinery 41, no. 12 (1998): 21-22.

Kraut, Robert, et al. "Information and Communication: Alternative Uses of the Internet in Households." Information Systems Research 10, no. 4 (1999): 287-303.

Lemke, Dwight K. "Cyberia." Journal of Management Inquiry 7, no. 3 (1998): 270-272.

Lemke, J. "Cultural Dynamics and Virtual Culture." The Electronic Journal on Virtual Culture 2, no. 1 (1994).

LeValley, Janet. "Doing It in Cyberspace: Cultural Sensitivity in Applied Anthropology." Anthropology of Consciousness 8, no. 4 (1997): 113-132.

Lievrouw, Leah A. "Our Own Devices: Heterotopic Communication, Discourse and Culture in the Information Society." The Information Society 14, no. 2 (1997).

Lindlof, T.R., and M.J. Shatzer. "Media Ethnography in Virtual Space: Strategies, Limits, and Possibilities." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 42, no. 2 (1998): 170-189.

Liu, Geoffrey Z. "Virtual Community Presence in Internet Relay Chatting." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 5, no. 1 (1999).

Luke, Timothy. "The Politics of Digital Inequality: Access, Capability and Distribution in Cyberspace." New Political Science 41-42 (1997): 121-144.

Maltz, Tamir. "Customary Law and Power in Internet Communities." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 2, no. 1 (1996).

Mannecke, B.E., and J.S. Valacich. "Information is What You Make of It: The Influence of Group History and Computer Support on Information Sharing, Decision Quality, and Member Perceptions." Journal of Management Information Systems 15, no. 2 (1997): 173-197.

Mantovani, G. "Is Computer-Mediated Communication Intrinsically Apt to Enhance Democracy in Organizations?" Human Relations 47, no. 1 (1994): 45-62.

Mantovani, G. "Social Context in HCl: A New Framework for Mental Models, Cooperation, and Communication." Cognitive Science 20, no. 2 (1996): 237-269.

Mantovani, G., and G. Riva. "Real Presence: How Different Ontologies Generate Different Criteria for Presence, Telepresence, and Virtual Presence." Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 8, no. 5 (1999): 540-550.

Matheson, Kimberly. "Social Cues in Computer-Mediated Communication: Gender Makes a Difference." Computers in Human Behavior 7 (1991): 137-145.

McChesney, R.W. "The Internet and U.S. Communication Policy-making in Historical and Critical Perspective." Journal of Communication 46 (1996): 98-124.

McClellan, J. "Netsurfers." The Observer, February 13, 1994.

McKenna, K.Y., and J.A. Bargh. "Coming Out in the Age of the Internet: Identity Demarginalization Through Virtual Group Participation." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75, no. 3 (1998): 681-694.

Mehta, M. D., and E. Darier. "Virtual Control and Discipline on the Internet: Electronic Governmentality in the New Wired World." The Information Society 14, no. 2 (1997).

Myers, Daniel J. "Communication Technology and Social Movements: Contributions of Computer Networks to Activism." Social Science Computer Review 12, no. 2 (1994): 250-260.

Nazer, N., and B. Wellman. "Scholarly Networks in a Loosely Coupled Organization." International Sociological Association, 1998.

Notess, Greg R. "Communications and Community on Web sites." Online 23, no. 4 (1999): 65-68.

Okleshen, C., and S. Grossbart. "Usenet Groups, Virtual Community and Consumer Behaviors." Advances in Consumer Research 25 (1998): 276-282.

Olaniran, Bolanle A. "Group Performance in Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Communication Media." Management Communication Quarterly 7, no. 3 (1994): 256-281.

Ono, R., and K. Aoki. "Convergence and New Regulatory Frameworks: A Comparative Study of Regulatory Approaches to Internet Telephony." Telecommunications Policy 22, no. 10 (1998): 817-838.

Paccagnella, Luciano. "How to Regulate the Use of Electronically Registered Messages in Research on Computer-Assisted Communication?" Quaderni di Sociologia 41, no. 15 (1997): 159-163.

Paccagnella, Luciano. "A Cyberspace Sociology: A Case Study of a Cyberpunk Electronic Conference." Quaderni di Sociologia 41, no. 13 (1997): 33-57.

Paccagnella, Luciano. "Language, Network Centrality, and Response to Crisis in On-line Life: A Case Study in the Italian Cyberpunk Computer Conference." The Information Society 14, no. 2 (1997).

Paccagnella, Luciano. "Getting the Seats of Your Pants Dirty: Strategies for Ethnographic Research on Virtual Communities." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3, no. 1 (1997).

Paolillo, John. "The Virtual Speech Community: Social Network and Language Variation on IRC." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4, no. 4 (1999).

Parks, M. R., and K. Floyd. "Making Friends in Cyberspace." Journal of Communication 46, no. 1 (1996): 80-97.

Parks, M.R., and L.D. Roberts. "Making MOOsic: The Development of Personal Relationships Online and a Comparison to their Offline Counterparts." Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 15, no. 4 (1998): 517-537.

Pfaffenberger, Bryan. "If I Want It, It's OK: Usenet and the (Outer) Limits of Free Speech." The Information Society 12, no. 4 (1996): 365-386.

Phillips, David J. "Defending the Boundaries: Identifying and Countering Threats in a Usenet Newsgroup." The Information Society 12, no. 1 (1996): 39-62.

Postmes, T., R. Spears, and M. Lea. "Breaching or Building Social Boundaries: Side-Effects of Computer-Mediated Communication." Communication Research 25, no. 6 (1998): 689-715.

Putnam, Robert D. "Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital." Journal of Democracy 6, no 1 (1995): 65-78.

Putnam, Robert D. "The Strange Disappearance of Civic America." American Prospect 24 (1996): 34-48.

Putnam, Robert D. "Robert Putnam Responds." American Prospect 25 (1996): 26-28.

Rafaeli, S., and F. Sudweeks. "Networked Interactivity." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 2, no. 4 (1997).

Reid, Elizabeth. "Informed Consent in the Study of On-Line Communities: A Reflection on the Effects of Computer-Mediated Social Research." The Information Society 12, no. 2 (1996): 169-174.

Ribeiro, Gustavo L. "Transnational Virtual Community? Exploring Implications for Culture, Power and Language." Organization Science 4, no. 4 (1997): 496-505.

Riedel, E., et al. "Electronic Communities: Assessing Equality of Access in a Rural Minnesota Community." Social Science Computer Review 16, no. 4 (1998): 370-390.

Rintel, E.S., and J. Pittam. "Strangers in a Strange Land: Interaction Management on Internet Relay Chat." Human Communication Research 23, no. 4 (1997): 507-534.

Riva, G., and C. Galimberti. "Computer-Mediated Communication: Identity and Social Interaction in an Electronic Environment." Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs 124, no. 4 (1998): 434-464.

Rodino, Michelle. "Breaking Out of Binaries: Reconceptualizing Gender and its Relationship to Language in Computer-Mediated Communication." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3, no. 3 (1997).

Rothkopf, David. "Cyberpolitik: The Changing Nature of Power in the Information Age." Journal of International Affairs 51, no. 2 (1998): 325-359.

Rowe, John Carlos. "Cybercowboys on the New Frontier: Freedom, Nationalism, and Imperialism in the Postmodern Era." The Information Society 12, no. 3 (1996): 309-314.

Ryan, Alan. "Exaggerated Hopes and Baseless Fears." Social Research 64, no. 3 (1997): 1167-1190.

Savicki, V., M. Kelley, and D. Lingenfelter. "Gender, Group Composition, and Task Type in Small Task Groups Using Computer-Mediated Communication." Computers in Human Behavior 12, no. 4 (1996): 549-565.

Savicki, V., D. Lingenfelter, and M. Kelley. "Gender, Language, Style, and Group Composition in Internet Discussion Groups." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 2, no. 3 (1996).

Savicki, V., M. Kelley, and E. Oesterreich. "Judgments of Gender in Computer-Mediated Communication." Computers in Human Behavior 15, no. 2 (1999): 185-194.

Schiano, D. J. "Convergent Methodologies in Cyber-Psychology: A Case Study." Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers 29, no. 2 (1997): 270-273.

Schiano, D. J. "Lessons from LambdaMOO: A Social, Text-Based Virtual Environment." Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 8, no. 2 (1999): 127-139.

Schroeder, Ralph. "Cyberculture, Cyborg Postmodernism and the Sociology of Virtual Reality Technologies: Surfing the Soul in the Information Age." Futures 26, no. 5 (1994): 519-528.

Schroeder, Ralph, and Raymond M. Lee. "Networked Worlds: Social Aspects of Multi-User Virtual Reality Technology." Sociological Research Online 2, no. 4 (1997): 59-69.

Shapiro, Andrew L. "Street Corners in Cyberspace." The Nation (July 3, 1995): 10-14.

Shapiro, Andrew L. "The Net That Binds: Using Cyberspace to Create Real Communities." The Nation (June 21, 1999).

Silver, D. "Localizing the Global Village: Lessons from the Blacksburg Electronic Village" In The Global Village: Dead or Alive?, edited by Ray B. Browne and Marshall W. Fishwick. Bowling Green, OH: Popular Press, 1999: 79-92.

Silver, D. "Margins in the Wires: Looking for Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Blacksburg Electronic Village." In Race in Cyberspace, edited by Beth E. Kolko, Lisa Nakamura, and Gilbert B. Rodman. New York, Routledge, 2000: 133-150

Silver, D. "Communication, Community, Consumption: An Ethnographic Exploration of an Online City." In Virtual Publics: Policy and Community in an Electronic Age, edited by Beth E. Kolko. Columbia University Press, forthcoming 2000.

Silver, D. "Looking Backwards, Looking Forward: Cyberculture Studies 1990-2000." In Web.Studies: Rewiring Media Studies for the Digital Age, edited by David Gauntlett. Oxford University Press, forthcoming, 2000.

Smith, C.B., M.L. McLaughlin, and K.K. Osborne. "Conduct Control on Usenet." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 2, no. 4 (1997).

Smith, M. A., and P. Kollock. "Managing the Virtual Commons: Cooperation and Conflict in Computer Communities." American Sociological Association, 1994.

Soukup, Charles. "The Gendered Interactional Patterns of Computer-Mediated Chatrooms: A Critical Ethnographic Study." The Information Society 15, no. 3 (1999): 169-176.

Spears, R., and M. Lea. "Panacea or Panopticon? The Hidden Power in Computer-Mediated Communication." Communication Research 21, no. 4 (1994): 427-459.

Streck, John M. "Pulling the Plug on Electronic Town Meetings: Participatory Democracy and the Reality of the Usenet." New Political Science 41-42 (1997): 17-46.

Stuhlmacher, A.F., and A.E. Walters. "Gender Differences in Negotiation Outcome: A Meta-Analysis." Personnel Psychology 52, no. 3 (1999): 653-677.

Suler, J.R., and W. Phillips. "The Bad Boys of Cyberspace: Deviant Behavior in Multimedia Chat Communities." CyberPsychology and Behavior 1 (1998): 275-294.

Suler, J.R. "To Get What You Need: Healthy and Pathological Internet Use." CyberPsychology and Behavior 2 (1999): 385-394.

Suler, J.R. "Psychotherapy in Cyberspace: A Five Dimension Model of Online and Computer-Mediated Psychotherapy." CyberPsychology and Behavior (forthcoming in 2000).

Tan, Bernard, et al. "Reducing Status Effects with Computer-Mediated Communication: Evidence from Two Distinct National Cultures." Journal of Management Information Systems 15, no. 1 (1998): 119-141.

Tan, Bernard, et al. "Computer-Mediated Communication and Majority Influence: Assessing the Impact in an Individualistic and a Collectivistic Culture." Management Science 44, no. 9 (1998): 1263-1278.

Taylor, Tina. "Creating Bodies: How We Inhabit Online Virtual Space." American Sociological Association, 1996.

Turkle, Sherry. "Constructions and Reconstructions of Self in Virtual Reality: Playing in the MUDs." Mind, Culture, and Activity: An International Journal 1, no. 3 (1994): 158-167.

Turkle, Sherry. "Virtuality and its Discontents: Searching for Community in Cyberspace." The American Prospect 24 (1996): 50-57.

Turkle, Sherry. "Multiple Subjectivity and Virtual Community at the End of the Freudian Century." Sociological Inquiry 67, no. 1 (1997): 72-84.

Turoff, M., and S.R. Hiltz. "Superconnectivity." Communications of the ACM 41, no. 7 (1998): 116.

Valacich, J.S., A.R. Dennis, and T. Connolly. "Idea Generation in Computer-Based Groups: A New Ending to an Old Story." Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 57, no. 3 (1994): 448-467.

Virnoche, M. E., and G. T. Marx. "Only Connect: E. M. Forster in an Age of Electronic Communication: Computer-Mediated Association and Community Networks." Sociological Inquiry 67, no. 1 (1997): 85-100.

Wachte, R.M. "The Effect of Gender and Communication Mode on Conflict Resolution." Computers in Human Behaviour 15, no. 6 (1999): 763-782.

Walsh, J.P., and T. Bayma. "Computer Networks and Scientific Work." Social Studies of Science 26, no. 3 (1996): 661-703.

Walther, Joseph B. "Impression Development in Computer-Mediated Interaction." Western Journal of Communication 57 (1993): 381-399.

Walther, Joseph B. "Anticipated Ongoing Interaction Versus Channel Effects on Relational Communication in Computer-Mediated Interaction." Human Communication Research 20, no. 4 (1994): 473-501.

Walther, Joseph B. "Interpersonal Effects in Computer-Mediated Interaction: A Meta-Analysis of Social and Antisocial Communication." Human Communication Research 21, no. 4 (1994): 460-487.

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